Some of the chemicals like Paraquat are not licensed for use in the EU and are classified by the US as likely to be carcinogenic. Anti-union tactics include: Pineapple production is characterised by large-scale, high-input and monoculture plantations dependent on regular and intense use of a number of toxic agrochemicals. These cookies do not store any personal information. In 1977-78 many farmers switched from sugarcane to pineapple. Whilst the major fruit companies such as Del Monte, Dole, Fyffes and Chiquita used to dominate the world pineapple supply chain, the last 10 years have seen a rise in the influence of major retailers. Chemical Studies of Pineapple (Ananas sativus Lindl). Of the annual production of 1 1/2 million tons, 1/8 is canned as fruit or Julce. Workers also face union repression, gender discrimination and health issues caused by working with toxic chemicals. Canned pineapple products are however, usually imported into the region. DOI: 10.1021/i560149a008. In Costa Rica, pineapples are harvested twice a year, and more than 50 different chemical substances and 30-38kg of chemicals are used per year on one hectare under cultivation. Regionally, pineapple is also used in the production of processed products with products such as juices, blended juices, jams and jellies made for local trade and home use. Pineapple wastes are very palatable and readily digestible having high content of soluble sugars, fiber, and pectin. Under natural conditions, pineapple comes to harvest during May-August. Sustainability Standards & Certifications, Improving & Increasing Women’s Employment, Del Monte launched the first ‘Gold’ pineapple, environmentally damaging effects as banana production, and workers also face social and economic difficulties, union repression, gender discrimination and health issues, report by Banana Link looking at the pineapple industry in Costa Rica, The story behind the pineapples sold on our supermarket shelves: A case study of Costa Rica, moving union members to undesirable and low paid jobs, mass redundancies, with only non-union members being re-hired. The use of agricultural chemical inputs, which includes pesticides, fertilizers, herbicides and others are prevalent in the Philippines. Costa Rica is the world’s largest pineapple producer and Germany’s main supplier of the fruit. Some local communities can no longer drink their water safely and must have water brought in from afar. Chemical Composition Change in Pineapple during Ripening: the Optimum Stage for Drying A. M. P. Braga(1), P. H. S. Santos(1), R. Z. de Souza(2), M. A. Silva(1) 1School of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, P.O. That, of course, is wonderful. 9. processing waste, as low cost substrate for the production of lactic acid using Lactobacillus. Read on to learn about common pineapple pests and plant diseases so you know what you should be watching for as your plant develops and how to treat issues in pineapple. In Costa Rica, the typical wage for pineapple workers is above the national average at €73 per week. These migrant workers are the secret to Costa Rica’s pineapple success. Adding value to this waste has created a new source of income for farming communities who otherwise rely on a seasonal harvest. They provide a cheaper and more flexible workforce. In industrial use, it is also one of the cheapest chemicals, which only adds to its popularity. It also ensures all year round pineapple production. The agro-industrial residues used in this study were pineapple waste products from the canned pineapple industry, i.e., pineapple peel, core, and CAE. According to FAO statistics, pineapples are the 11th most cultivated fruit, with over 24.8 million tonnes being produced in 2013. The growing pineapple market is due in part to the popularity of the new ‘Sweet’ or ‘Gold’ pineapple variety which is bigger, has a high sugar content, appealing taste and colour, and is consistent in quality. This is absolute monoculture, and that and the climate provide the perfect conditions for pests and diseases. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. New research just published by the Dutch Centre for Research on Multinational Corporations (SOMO) reveals a pattern of recurring labour right violations on farms certified by almost all the well-known sustainability certification initiatives, such as Fairtrade and Rainforest Alliance. The expansion of biocomposites has amplified industrial usage that would release the possibilities to minimize the wastage of renewable materials. Smaller producers do exist, but many are facing high debts and bankruptcy. The ‘pineapple split’ graphic below shows the distribution of value along the pineapple supply chain, with retailers now taking the lion’s share – 41%. Pineapple production is characterised by large-scale, high-input and monoculture plantations dependent on regular and intense use of a number of toxic agrochemicals. 36.25±2.87% of cellulose was achieved from pineapple peel after pretreatment with water and heat at 100 o C for 4 h. Pineapples are propagated from crown, slip and suckers. However, some examples of better social and environmental practices can be seen within the industry, particularly in the case of small Fairtrade and Organic cetified producers in the northern region of Costa Rica. Despite national and international campaigns to halt the damaging expansion of pineapple production and hold companies responsible for their actions, environmental regulations continue to be violated; the pineapple companies’ economic and political power secures their impunity. Bromelain is an enzyme extract derived from the stems of pineapples, although it exists in all parts of the fresh pineapple. A report by Banana Link looking at the pineapple industry in Costa Rica found that three women working on one PINDECO (a Del Monte subsidiary) plantation alleged severe cases of sexual discrimination and harassment from male plantation managers. Pineapples take 18 to 24 months to fully grow. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. IMPROVE YOUR SUGARLOAF PINEAPPLE PRODUCTION ILLUSTRATED MANUAL FOR ORGANIC FARMERS IN GHANA . The Volatile Flavor and Odor Constituents of Pineapple ... Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Analytical Edition 1946, 18 (1) , 31-32. Some of the chemicals like Paraquat are not licensed for use in … This practice is followed for producing export quality pineapples. Pineapple is the latest bargain offer in supermarkets, but the true cost is paid in the countries where it is produced. Women have also reported being sacked for becoming pregnant. Once the fibre has been stripped from the leaf the leftover biomass can be retained to use as a natural fertiliser or bio-fuel, offering a further … ILRF’s partner labor advocacy NGOs in Costa Rica, ASEPROLA, and in the Philippines, EILER, have found abundant evidence that labor rights abuses, inhumane working conditions, and environmental degradation have plagued the industry around the world. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. This, together with various accidents and chemical spillages has resulted in local water contamination, soil degradation and other environmental and health problems. There are several phases that go into the production of pineapples: Land Preparation, Planting, Maintenance, Harvesting, and Packaging. These groups conducted fi eld research on pineapple plantations and processing facilities. PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR PINEAPPLE Mercedes M. Arcelo Pineapple (Ananas comosus), a tropical plant with edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries, named for resemblance to the pine cone, is the most economically important plant in the Bromeliaceae family. The diagram on the right provides an idea of the range of worker roles in the pineapple industry. Analytical results shall be kept as evidence. Kleeman (2011) argues that organic products earn a premium price on the market compared to conventional (inorganic) products. The level of union organisation is extremely low (about 2%) in the Costa Rican pineapple industry. They use organophosphates, organochlorines, hormone … According to the law, people working with pesticides are only allowed to work for 6 hours a day, but workers are often engaging in longer hours. Various rapid propagation can be used in the production of pineapple. Pineapples are high in vitamin C, dietary fibre, calcium, manganese and potassium. It can be used in a variety of flavors: orange (most common), cherry, pineapple, mango, guava, bubblegum, peach, apricot, fig, and plum. Production of pineapple fiber. Around 50% of workers on Costa Rican pineapple plantations are hired through subcontractors who provide a flexible, low paid and non-unionised workforce. For example, a recent report, Sweet Fruit, Bitter Truth published by Oxfam Germany found that workers on pineapple plantations are frequently being exposed to dangerous levels of pesticide, and in several areas, water supplies are constantly being contaminated with chemicals. They pay them far above the minimum wage, as well as providing them with significant benefits, such as housing, transport and education. Growing and harvesting pineapples is a back breaking, and painstaking process. For their report – Looking good on paper: Review of recent research on the impact of sustainability certication on working conditions on large farms – SOMO reviewed published evidence about the effectiveness of sustainability certification initiatives on labour conditions at large-scale farms in low- and middle-income countries from 2014-2017. Therefore, workers have no respite from the suffocating heat of the day. 9 Organic production is where basically no pesticides or chemical fertilizers are used. The methods includes: 1. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. Land Preparation: The first step in pineapple production is preparing the land for planting pineapples. Scottish artist, Jan Nimmo, travels to Costa Rica to meet Carlos Arguedas Mora, trade unionist and passionate environmental campaigner and Dr Catharina Wesseling, a scientist with a long track record of researching agro-chemicals and their effects on workers. While organic pineapples are now being farmed on a larger scale to increasing demand, this likewise has negative consequences for Costa Rica’s ecosystem. Pineapple is rich in citric and malic acids; citric acid concentrations in some cultivars exceed 8%.4 The fruit also contains moderate amounts of ascorbic acid; 2 slices of pineapple contain 100 mg of ascorbic acid.5 A steroidal component of the leaves possesses estrogenic activity4 and a variety of aromatic compounds are found in the essential oil. As an ingredient, it is used in cosmetics, as a topical medication, and as a meat tenderizer. Pineapple plants can mostly be found in Latin America and West Africa. PINEAPPLE UNCTAD INFOCOMM 6 development of refrigerated transport. If grown in areas of scanty rainfall with hot weather, then irrigation must be done once in two weeks. Unemployment amongst women in Costa Rica is around 11.2%, and pineapple companies increasingly prefer to employ men due to the ‘high costs’ associated with employing women, such as maternity pay. Ethyl butyrate is one of the most common chemicals used in flavors and fragrances. The last step in the land preparation is to apply chemicals designed to kill off any parasites … Most leaf fibers are long and somewhat stiff. Diuron is a broad-spectrum residual herbicide and algaecide used in agriculture for pre-emergent and post-emergent control of broadleaved and grass weeds. Micro-propagation using stem and shoot subdivisions 3. However, they are expected to work at least 80 hours per week to earn this ‘privilege’. The majority of fresh pineapples sold on the world market are produced in Latin America, with 84% grown in Costa Rica. Vitamin C … The term "bromelain" may refer to either of two protease enzymes extracted from the plants of the family Bromeliaceae, or it may refer to a … Due to the peculiarity of the fruit and its production cycle, which is falsely accelerated, approximately 60 per cent from every tonne of chemicals used in the cultivation of pineapples goes directly into the environment. In Europe, the majority of pineapples in our market come from Costa Rica, which supplies 75% of the pineapples found in the EU. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Tissue ulture 2. Pineapple can be eaten both fresh and processed although the proteolytic protein bromelain will degrade if it is processed, this means that if tinned pineapple is used to make jelly it will set, but if fresh pineapple is used the jelly will not set, also if you use fresh pineapple to cook your ham steaks it will help to tenderise the meat. It promotes a non-food-based market for agricultural industry In case of risk, water shall be tested by either official or accredited laboratory for hazardous substances. On the other hand, these small producers represent a minority in an industry that is dominated by large-scale, conventional production controlled by a handful of powerful fruit companies. Some researchers have used pineapple syrup, a food. Pineapple powder is an interesting product because of its long shelf life at ambient temperature, convenience to use and low transportation expenditure. This research was commissioned by Consumers International as part of an EC funded project to raise awareness amongst European consumers of the impact that supermarket supply chain policies can have on producers, workers and communities in developing countries; and to help bring about positive change. The fruits are cheap because costs are cut in the production countries – affecting wages and health factors. The Philippine pineapple industry is largely operated by two companies – Dole Philippines (Dolefil) and Del Monte Philippines Inc. (DMPI) – who grow 80% of its pineapples. 1.1 Water used in the production processes shall come from sources that do not cause contamination of hazardous substances against produce. While profits for some have tremendously expanded under such development, this report demonstrates how pineapple workers, their families and communities, and the environment in the largest pineapple producing nations have not enjoyed the benefits of such growth. FRUITS, BENEFITS, PROCESSING, PRESERVATION AND PINEAPPLE RECIPES Joy P. P. & Minu Abraham, Pineapple Research Station (Kerala Agricultural University), Vazhakulam-686 670, Guardian special correspondent Felicity Lawrence investigates reports of environmental damage, union-busting and poverty wages in Costa Rica’s fruit industry. Moreover, the poor environmental practice of both national and international producers is leading to environmental problems of contamination of local aquifers and groundwater, soil erosion, sedimentation and deforestation. The use of organophosphates and organochlorines on the pineapple crops, chemicals labeled as hormone disruptors, carcinogens, reproductive toxins (substances known to cause birth defects), and other persistent pollutants that can remain in the environment for years are broadly applied. Every year tonnes of pineapple leaf fibres are being produced, though very small portions are being used in the field of feedstock and energy production. Workers therefore work in shifts of anything from 8 to 14 hours, which vary depending on the time of the shift. Pineapple plants are spiky and difficult to handle, they grow low to the ground requiring workers to stoop over the plants, and the monoculture production method requires that there is no shade over the plants. The other major fruit companies followed suit. Pineapple pomace arising from the processing of pineapple to juice may account for up to 50% of the weight of harvest and can be used to feed ruminants. In fact, the Costa Rican tropical fruit export market was valued at $1.22 billion in 2015. Then, they prepare beds, clean and weed, and burn off and kill excess plants; this requires herbicides. These materials were obtained from Siam Food Products Public Company Limited (a Banbung factory at Tambol Nong-Irun, Amphoe Banbung, Chonburi, Thailand). Pineapples also provide an ample supply of Vitamin C, an anti-oxidant that protects the body from free radical damage and boosts the immune system. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. Health impacts such as skin diseases, respiratory problems, gastric illnesses and birth defects have also been reported in local communities. Pineapples are grown and harvested here in vast monoculture plantations using huge amounts of pesticides. Pineapple production uses extensive chemical inputs as plantation corporations want to ensure high yields and export-level quality of the fruits. In the 2012-13 season, the Australian pineapple processing sector produced 39,000 t of fruit for canning and juicing, which was worth $12.5 million. Approximately 70% of workers in the Costa Rican pineapple industry are Nicaraguan migrants. In recent years, the world pineapple market has expanded rapidly, with production increasing by nearly 50% since 1998. The extract has a history of folk medicine use. Costa Rica is the world’s largest pineapple producer, and is known both for its exemplary ecological approach and for sustainable tourism. I. Unfortunately, most of the bromelain in canned pineapples is destroyed due to the heat used in the canning process. Since the 1960’s, pineapple production has quadrupled and export has tripled worldwide. Like any large scale production, the pineapple industry is also responsible for significant environmental damage in producer countries. Cheap labor and pesticides mean low prices in Western Europe. putting union members on ‘blacklists’, preventing them from finding work on other plantations. Most exported pineapples are grown by banana producing companies, often on former banana plantations, employing the same workers and using the same transport and distribution networks. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. The majority of production is on large-scale, monoculture plantations owned by a small number of national and multinational fruit companies. Many local communities have also had their natural sources of drinking water contaminated, for example in the communities of El Cairo, La Francia and Luisiana in the Southern Atlantic zone of Costa Rica where over 6,000 people have to rely on government tanks to deliver drinking water supplies to the affected region. This variety has sold well since Del Monte launched the first ‘Gold’ pineapple on our supermarket shelves in 1992. formal peer review process by CIGR editorial committees; therefore, they are not to be presented as refereed publications. Many of the chemicals used are not licensed for use in the EU because they are considered to be too dangerous to use. Some companies are, however, introducing mechanised harvesting which goes some way to reduce the strain on workers. They also work in particularly poor conditions, working long hours and receiving poverty wages. Peter Šiška, Daniela Danková, Dária Nitrayová, Peter Fodran, Ivan Špánik, Peter Szolcsányi. For those women that have secured work, the conditions can be very difficult, such as discrimination and, in some cases, sexual harassment. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. The long working hours are particularly challenging for women who are left with no spare time to care for the family and household. Pineapple production regions are usually confined to altitudes below 800 m above sea level, although Kenya reports production fields located between 1400 and 1800 m, and Malaysia orchards as high as 2400 m (Purseglove, 1968). the multinational traders. This manual has been produced by Agro Eco under commission from the FAO project GCP/RAF/404/GER Increasing incomes and food security of small farmers in West and Central Africa through exports of organic and fair-trade tropical products funded by the Government of … The body uses Vitamin C to metabolize fats and cholesterol, absorb iron, and synthesize amino acids and collagen. However, there are approximately 24,000 workers not included in these reports (comprising an estimated 85% of their total workforce) who also work for these companies. There are a range of worker roles in the production of pineapples, these vary from land preparation in the field to loading pineapples into boxes in the pack house. The fruit usually ripens about 5 months after flowering. [1] This is of primary concern to the communities of Cairo, La France, Milano and others in the Siquirres district of north-eastern Costa Rica. Since then processing and exporting have risen rapidly. Friendly as against the inorganic type, where chemical fertilizers are used cookies to your. Repression, gender discrimination and health issues caused by working with toxic chemicals used as a component of feed! Water brought in from afar the majority of large scale production & pineapple trade, the Costa tropical... 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