Professor of the History of Medicine, University College London, University of London. Please help us create teaching materials on Mesopotamia (including several complete lessons with worksheets, activities, answers, essay questions, and more), which will be free to download for teachers all over the world. +112 pages, with two diagrams. Galen of Pergamum was a physician who was born in Pergamum was a bustling and vibrant city at the time and was particularly famous for its statue of Asclepius, a god of healing. Galen viewed the body as consisting of three connected systems: the brain and nerves, which are responsible for sensation and thought; the heart and arteries, responsible for life-giving energy; and the liver and veins, responsible for nutrition and growth. 14/11;Aff. He researched mostly on anatomy, physiology, pathology and pharmacology. Related Content Buy Galen of Pergamon. He was born at Pergamon, Asia Minor, into a wealthy family that valued education. Galen was both a universal genius and a prolific writer: about 300 titles of works by him are known, of which about 150 survive wholly or in part. Modern doctors, though, must accept his recommendation of exercise, a balanced diet, good hygiene, and bathing. on Amazon.com FREE SHIPPING on qualified orders Updates? Greek physician Galen of Pergamon documented his successes and failures treating injured gladiators for later generations to read, helping lay the origins of modern medicine. Galenus of Pergamon probably passed away around the year 199. 'Galen Conversio' - Galen studies a group of bones Wellcome L0046416.jpg 2,444 × 3,976; 3.31 MB A triumphal arch from which is suspended the flayed skin of … University of Kansas Press 1954. Greek manuscripts began to be collected and translated by enlightened Arabs in the 9th century, and about 850 Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq, an Arab physician at the court of Baghdad, prepared an annotated list of 129 works of Galen that he and his followers had translated from Greek into Arabic or Syriac. Born in 129 CE in the Asia Minor city of Pergamon, Galen was the son of the wealthy architect Nikon and was initially educated in both rhetoric and philosophy. He was perpetually inquisitive, even in areas remote from medicine, such as linguistics, and he was an important logician who wrote major studies of scientific method. Galen believed that the knowledge of anatomy was vital to a physician. 27 Dec 2020. I was born in 129 AD into a wealthy family in Pergamon, part of the Roman Empire. Galen´s Geburtsort Pergamon in der heutigen Türkei war ein altes Zentrum der Lehre und der Medizin, mit einem dem Asklepios gewidmeten „Heilungs-Tempel“ und einer berühmten Bibliothek, die nur mit der von Alexandria vergleichbar war. Galen was a Greek physician, surgeon, and philosopher. Galen, also known as Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus, was born in September 130 AD in the city of Pergamon (modern-day Bergama, Turkey), a major cultural hub in those times. Galen’s physiology was a mixture of ideas taken from the philosophers Plato and Aristotle as well as from the physician Hippocrates, whom Galen revered as the fount of all medical learning. This modification of the theory allowed doctors to make more precise diagnoses and to prescribe specific remedies to restore the body’s balance. After the death of his father in 149/50 CE, he continued his studies as he traveled throughout the Mediterranean. Origins: The Journey of Humankind. Many of his theories concerning the heart and blood circulation would continue to be the norm until the studies of William Harvey in the 17th century CE. Ancient History Encyclopedia. He was reappointed annually until the outbreak of the Parthian War in 161. He studied medicine and built a reputation as a physician. Ancient History Encyclopedia. In 157 Galen returned to Pergamon, where he "had the good fortune to think out and publicly demonstrate a cure for wounded tendons" which gained him, in 158, the position of physician to the gladiators. Galenus von Pergamon (* um 129 in Pergamon, † um 199 n. Chr. Arzt, ca. Galen of Pergamon is well-known for a curious occurrence that became valuable research. X. Owning a large, personal library, he wrote hundreds of medical treatises including anatomical, physiological, pharmaceutical, and therapeutic works. "Galen." Born: 129 AD : Died: c.200/c.219 AD : Nationality: Roman/Greek : Famous For: First Experimental Medicine: Galen was a physician and biologist who is referred to as the “father of experimental physiology.” His areas of expertise included physiology, neurology, pathology, logic, philosophy and anatomy. Galen was a Roman physician and surgeon (of Greek ancestry) who is arguably the most accomplished of all medical researchers of antiquity. In 162 the ambitious Galen moved to Rome. Was a greek city before it was conquered. He did not accept the theories of his peers - ideas based on conjecture and not study or experimentation. https://www.ancient.eu/Galen/. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. To Galen, the human body was the orderly construct of nature or in the Church’s eyes - God. And, for this reason, he conducted numerous dissections - at first on animals but later on cadavers. His medical theories not only surpassed those of Hippocrates, they went on to dominate European school of thought for more than a millennium. Claudius Galen was born in Pergamum (modern-day Turkey) of Greek parents. While he may have had doubts about the existence of the gods, he believed that medicine was an exact yet human science. Born in the city of Pergamon (Pergamum), on the western coast of … In 1543 the Flemish physician Andreas Vesalius showed that Galen’s anatomy of the body was more animal than human in some of its aspects, and it became clear that Galen and his medieval followers had made many errors. A small proportion of this blood is further refined in a network of nerves at the base of the skull (in reality found only in ungulates) and the brain to make psychic pneuma, a subtle material that is the vehicle of sensation. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. However, in countless cases, he had to battle the archaic beliefs of many of the early physicians. After Verus’ sudden death in 169, Galen returned to Rome, where he served Marcus Aurelius and the later emperors Commodus and Septimius Severus as a physician. Galen was a Roman physician and surgeon (of Greek ancestry) who is arguably the most accomplished of all medical researchers of antiquity. Galen did experiments such as severing a nerve and observing the effects. 200/c. The Origin of the Scientific Method. Helays great stress on his own early education in mathematics andgeometry, and on his passion for logic (Lib. Galenos von Pergamon, auch Aelius Galenus (griechisch Γαληνός, deutsch: Galēn, in frühneuzeitlichen Drucken auch Galienus; * 129 oder 131 in Pergamon; † um 199, 201 oder 216 in Rom), war ein griechischer Arzt und Anatom.Der ihm in der Renaissance verliehene Vorname Claudius beruht auf einer Fehldeutung der Abkürzung Cl. Galen was fortunate to be born into an affluent home, in the city of Pergamon on the Aegean coast in AD 129. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Author of, history of medicine: Hellenistic and Roman medicine. Find in this title: Find again. By 500 ce his works were being taught and summarized at Alexandria, and his theories were already crowding out those of others in the medical handbooks of the Byzantine world. Collegium History. Centuries later, Galen adopted his concept of the four humours: blood, black bile, yellow bile and phlegm. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press, 1954. 1. With principles based on his anatomical dissections, he spoke and wrote extensively on the anatomy of the body emphasizing the role of the heart, brain, and blood. While it may be convenient to blame the plague, he probably was driven out of the city by hostile conspirators. Chr.) Galen wurde um 129 in Pergamon (Kleinasien) geboren. Like Herophilus, he conducted public dissections as well as studied human respiration, the nervous system, and muscular activity. At the age of 16, Galen changed educational directions, pos… These texts offered a different picture from that of the Middle Ages, one that emphasized Galen as a clinician, a diagnostician, and above all, an anatomist. Sometimes people use the names Galen of Pergamon … During an outbreak of what some believe to be smallpox in Rome, Galen was able to study and write on individual cases, giving detailed descriptions of its symptoms. In Rome, he gave a number of public anatomical demonstrations using pigs, monkeys, sheep, and goats. His father, Aelius Nicon, was a wealthy and well-respected architect and builder. The city had great strategic value, since it overlooked the Caicus River Valley (modern name Bakırçay) which provided access from Pergamon to the Aegean coast. This fell in line with the Church’s belief that God created humankind. Last modified October 15, 2019. Like Hippocrates and other theorists Galen believed that illness was caused by an imbalance, so how does one restore the balance: bleeding, enemas, and vomiting. in Rom) war ein griechischer Arzt und Anatom. He researched mostly on anatomy, physiology, pathology and pharmacology. City where Galen was born. The Galen Awards program is named after Claudius Galenus (AD 129 – AD 217), better known as Galen of Pergamon. Portrait of Seven Notable Greek Physicians & Botanists. During the Roman period the city was the first capital of the Asian province, … This allowed Galen the leisure to get an education and choose a path of life un… His medical theories not only surpassed those of Hippocrates, they went on to dominate European school of thought for more than a millennium. Thank you! He would only briefly leave Rome during a plague outbreak brought by troops returning from the East. Galen’s System of Physiology and Medicine. Given the training gladiators had to undergo and the wounds they suffered, being their surgeon contributed greatly to Galen’s knowledge of health and medicine. However, many of his ideas concerning the circulatory system and the role of the veins and arteries have long been shown to be incorrect. Galen, born in 131 AD, was considered one of the greatest practitioners of medicine in the ancient world, both East and West, through to the 16th century. When soldiers returned from battle, they brought viruses, smallpox,… (circa 130 – 200 AD) Claudius Galen of Pergamon is deemed the most capable physician of ancient Europe. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. In some areas the arising Galenism was that strong that even Hippocrates was seen through a Galenic perspective. Each of the humours is built up from the four elements and displays two of the four primary qualities: hot, cold, wet, and dry. Galen’s final works were written after 207, which suggests that his Arab biographers were correct in their claim that he died at age 87, in 216/217. Galen, also known as Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus, was born in September 130 AD in the city of Pergamon (modern-day Bergama, Turkey), a major cultural hub in those times. Herophilus (330-260 BCE) of Alexandria established a school of anatomy in Alexandria and was one of the first to conduct dissections of human cadavers in public. An den Schulen Pergamons wurden die Lehren der großen Philosophen der Antike (PLATO, ARISTOTELES, EPIKUR) sowie die der Stoiker unterrichtet. Galen demonstrated a profound allegiance to many of the theories of the Greek philosopher Plato. Never marrying, Galen eventually left Pergamon in 162 CE to pursue a career in Rome. Dictionary Romanian ↔ English: Galen of Pergamon: Translation 1 - 50 of 112 >> Romanian: English: Full phrase not found. The Pergamon of his youth was home to a sanctuary dedicated to the god of medicine Asclepius. Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. Galen’s writings achieved wide circulation during his lifetime, and copies of some of his works survive that were written within a generation of his death. Echoing a modern day-theory, for optimum health, Galen recommended exercise, a balanced diet, good hygiene, & bathing. Donald has taught Ancient, Medieval and U.S. History at Lincoln College (Normal, Illinois)and has always been and will always be a student of history, ever since learning about Alexander the Great. Among the best-known are: For over 1500 years after his death, Galen’s treatises were read and studied throughout Europe. Im Luxus geboren. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). His hometown, Pergamum, was the site of a magnificent shrine of the healing god, Asclepius, that was visited by many distinguished figures of the Roman Empire for cures. A prominent Greek physician, surgeon & philosopher in the Roman Empire, Galen was ranked second behind Hippocrates in the knowledge of medicine. Galenos lernte in der Schule die klassischen Philosophen Epikur, Aristoteles und Platon … Galen’s physiological theory proved extremely seductive, and few possessed the skills needed to challenge it in succeeding centuries. Galen even studied the pulse, classifying its rhythm and differentiating between its irregularities, whether it was relaxed, racing, regular or erratic. Galen’s interests ranged from the study of blood and the heart to tuberculosis and even cancer. Galen was also a skilled polemicist and an incorrigible publicist of his own genius, and these traits, combined with the enormous range of his writings, help to explain his subsequent fame and influence. And, like many of his predecessor, Galen believed that every physician, for the benefit of his patients and the human race, find out everything that he can about the human body. In addition to being a celebrated physician, Galen is said to have also been a … Never marrying, Galen eventually left Pergamon in 162 CE to pursue a career in Rome. But in 158 CE, Galen tells us of a remarkable development. Being a student and practitioner of Stoic philosophy, Emperor Marcus Aurelius called him the “best of physicians and the first of philosophers.” To Galen, a good physician also had to be a good philosopher. Adding to Herophilus’ and Erasistratus’ theories on the heart, Galen questioned how the blood flowed from the right to the left ventricle and from the veins to the arteries. This blood eventually reached the lungs and heart. The Galen Awards program is named after Claudius Galenus (AD 129 – AD 217), better known as Galen of Pergamon. Galen regarded anatomy as the foundation of medical knowledge, and he frequently dissected and experimented on such lower animals as the Barbary ape (or African monkey), pigs, sheep, and goats. Galen’s wealthy background, social contacts, and a friendship with his old philosophy teacher Eudemus further enhanced his reputation as a philosopher and physician. “Galen on the Passions and Errors of the Souls” contains two philosophical works by Galen of Pergamum (130 – c.200 CE) in the field of moral philosophy: The Diagnosis and Cure of the Soul’s Passions and The Diagnosis and Cure of the Soul’s Errors . Galen was a Greek physician, surgeon, and philosopher. Claudius Galenos wurde im Jahr 129 als Sohn des Architekten Nikon in Pergamon geboren. Prop. Galen’s influence was initially almost negligible in western Europe except for drug recipes, but from the late 11th century Ḥunayn’s translations, commentaries on them by Arab physicians, and sometimes the original Greek writings themselves were translated into Latin. (For over 400 years the Alexandrian school of medicine had taught that arteries are full of air). Galen wurde in den Schoß des Luxus geboren, der ihm genügend Zeit und Unabhängigkeit zum Lernen gab. Born in Pergamon (present-day Bergama, Turkey), Galen traveled extensively, exposing himself to a wide variety of medical theories and discoveries before settling in Rome, where he served prominent members of Roman society and eventually was given the position of personal physician to several emperors. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Galen, Wolfram Research - Eric Weisstein's World of Scientific Biography - Biography of Galen of Pergamum, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Biography of Charles Sanders Peirce, Galen - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Genaues Datum nicht bekannt) – als der bedeutendste Arzt der Antike. He wrote a huge number of books, most of which have never been translated into English. Galen, or Galenos of Pergamon was a Greek physician, surgeon, philosopher that moved to Rome and served several Roman Emperors, including Marcus Aurelius, Commodus and Septimius Severus. Although he claimed that the intolerable envy of his colleagues prompted his return to Pergamum, an impending plague in Rome was probably a more compelling reason. Despite the outrage, Galen believed that the knowledge of anatomy was vital to a physician. This new (now red) blood having been infused with “vital spirits” flowed through the arteries to give the body life. 216), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon (/ˈɡeɪlən/), was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire. Today Pergamon is in Turkey. Galen challenged the norm. He was born in 129 AD to a wealthy family. Dig.I.8), seeing these disciplines as providing amodel of secure proof lacking from the philosophical debates of thepost-Hellenistic schools which were dominant in his day. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Sein genaues Geburtsdatum ist nicht mehr exakt bekannt. Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Greek: Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – c. 200/c. Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (/ ɡ ə ˈ l iː n ə s /; Greek: Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – c. 200 /c. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. Unfortunately, Galen also believed that anger was due to the excess of bile in the heart. Galen, Greek Galenos, Latin Galenus, (born 129 ce, Pergamum, Mysia, Anatolia [now Bergama, Turkey]—died c. 216), Greek physician, writer, and philosopher who exercised a dominant influence on medical theory and practice in Europe from the Middle Ages until the mid-17th century. He lost many of his writings, instruments, and medicines in a storeroom fire in 192 CE. Galen of Pergamon | Sarton, George | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Ancient History Encyclopedia. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. His writings, often criticized by these peers, were collected by Islamic scholars, eventually making their way into the laps of the universities and physicians of the Middle Ages. Galen was the first to determine that arteries carried blood and not air! Much of our knowledge of early medicine comes from Galen’s writings. In Rome, he gave a number of public anatomical demonstrations using pigs, monkeys, sheep, and goats. Luckily, the Church fathers approved of Galen’s work. While he criticized many of his contemporaries, he embraced the ideas put forth by the Greek physician and theorist Hippocrates (460-370 BCE), primarily his concept of the four humours that controlled the human condition: blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile. Echoing a modern day-theory, for optimum health, he recommended exercise, a balanced diet, good hygiene, and bathing. Galenos` Name bedeutet "der Sanfte, der Heitere". Galen was born in the year 129 A.D. in the wealthy Greek city of Pergamon in the Eastern Roman Empire. License. The three passages translated here refer respectively to the method used by Archimedes to burn warships, the death of Cleopatra, and the collection of books for the library at Alexandria. Galen was the physician to Commodus for much of the emperor’s life and treated his common illnesses. Galen of Pergamum (AD 129 – 199/217) was a prominent Roman physician and philosopher from Pergamon, a Greek city in western Asia Minor.He was an important medical researcher during the time of the Roman Empire.His theories influenced Western medical science for over a thousand years.. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1996. Galen wrote most of his life. Monument of Galen in his hometown Pergamon Along with Hippocrates of Kos, Galen shaped what is understood as Ancient Greek medicine. As with other Greek and Roman physicians, Galen believed the characteristic tumors of cancer - he identified 61 kinds - were due to an excess of black bile. Pergamon reached the height of its influence during the Hellenistic period, becoming the capital of the Attalid kings. One example of this was with the cure for tuberculosis or 'phthisis' a word meaning “a dwindling away.” Many Greeks ascribed its causes to “evil airs.” The cure, according to the early Romans, was to bathe in human urine, drink elephant’s blood, or eat wolves’ livers. Siegel, Rudolph. Although an avowed monotheist - never professing allegiance to Christianity - Galen believed the body was the creation of one god. He studied anatomy at the famous medical school found in Alexandria, Egypt. 216), better known as Galen of Pergamon (modern-day Bergama, Turkey), was a prominent Roman (of Greek ethnicity) physician, surgeon and philosopher. By the 2nd century CE, Pergamon had fallen under the control of the Roman Empire. While his skills as a physician brought him to the attention of the Roman emperors, they also brought the ire of his peers - possibly causing him to leave Rome and return home for a few years. 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